# Module 1: Complexity and Infrastructures #
Grand challenge: An infrastructure meeting twice the needs of today’s population, with half the resources, providing twice the livability.
Complexity of infrastructures causes emergent issues.
– Multifunctionality in infrastructures
– Decentralized infrastructures a smart grid
Requires *a complex adaptive systems approach*.
## Socio-technical systems, infrastructures and complexity ##
What are infrastructures?
Roads, rails, sewage (scaling local – global), telecommunications, megastructures
The social bit comes from *interconnected users*. The physical and social dimensions cannot be separated in practice. Vertical unbundling: new players, generation and supply competitions.